History of Bioinformatics



Early bioinformatics: the birth of a disciplne ------ a personal view

Christos A. Ouzounis and Alfonso Valencia. Bioinformatics. 2003, 19(17): 2176-2190 [PDF]

Bioinformatics Milestones

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), USA

Listed below are some of the major events in bioinformatics over the last several decades. Most of the events in the list occurred long before the term, "bioinformatics", was coined. In most cases, links take the user to outside sites that provide further explanation of each event and access to related resources.


Pauling's theory of molecular evolution
1965 Margaret Dayhoff's Atlas of Protein Sequences
1970 Needleman-Wunsch algorithm
1977 DNA sequencing and software to analyze it (Staden)
1981 Smith-Waterman algorithm developed
1981 The concept of a sequence motif (Doolittle)
1982 GenBank Release 3 made public
1982 Phage lambda genome sequenced
1983 Sequence database searching algorithm (Wilbur-Lipman)
1985 FASTP/FASTN: fast sequence similarity searching
1988 National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) created at NIH/NLM
1988 EMBnet network for database distribution
1990 BLAST: fast sequence similarity searching
1991 EST: expressed sequence tag sequencing
1993 Sanger Centre, Hinxton, UK
1994 EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute, Hinxton, UK
1995 First bacterial genomes completely sequenced
1996 Yeast genome completely sequenced
1998 Worm (multicellular) genome completely sequenced
1999 Fly genome completely sequenced

A brief history of bioinformatics

Jeff, Gauthier, Antony, et al. A brief history of bioinformatics.[J]. Briefings in Bioinformatics, 2018. [PDF]

Total amount of sequences on the NCBI GenBank and WGS (Whole Genome Shotgun) databases over time. The number of draft/incomplete genomes has surpassed the amount of complete genome sequences in June 2014, and stills continues to grow exponentially.



樊龙江,见:破译生命密码基因工程(主编:周雪平 樊龙江 舒庆尧),“走进生物技术”丛书,杭州:浙江大学出版社,2002,136-143 [PDF]



庞洪泉 樊龙江译,生物技术通报2002247-52 [PDF]

(译自“Two or three myths about bioinformatics". Christos Ouzounis. Bioinformatics, 2000, 16(3): 187-189)